Steroidogenesis pathway wikipedia

The seven enzymes involved in the shikimate pathway are DAHP synthase , 3-dehydroquinate synthase , 3-dehydroquinate dehydratase , shikimate dehydrogenase , shikimate kinase , EPSP synthase , and chorismate synthase . The pathway starts with two substrates , phosphoenol pyruvate and erythrose-4-phosphate and ends with chorismate , a substrate for the three aromatic amino acids. The fifth enzyme involved is the shikimate kinase , an enzyme that catalyzes the ATP -dependent phosphorylation of shikimate to form shikimate 3-phosphate (shown in the figure below). [1] Shikimate 3-phosphate is then coupled with phosphoenol pyruvate to give 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate via the enzyme 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate (EPSP) synthase .

Reproductive status is regulated by nutritional feedback to the hypothalamus that controls GnRH and hence LH pulsatile output ( Miller et al ., 2007 ). Both leptin and insulin have been shown to be involved in the long-and short-term control of reproductive neuroendocrine function in several species, including sheep. Both insulin and leptin stimulates LH secretion ( Cunningham et al ., 1999 ; Adam et al ., 2003 ; Miller et al ., 2007 ). Miller et al . (2007) further hypothesized that GnRH/LH stimulation by increasing nutritional status is mediated by increased amounts of circulating leptin and insulin entering the brain, down-regulating hypothalamic expression of neuropeptide Y (NPY) and agouti-related peptide (AgRP) and up-regulating expression of proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART). whereas GnRH/LH inhibition by decreasing nutritional status is mediated by decreased amounts of circulating leptin and insulin entering the brain, up-regulating hypothalamic NPY and AgRP expression and down-regulating POMC and CART expression. The GnRH/LH response to an increasing plane of nutrition appears to be mediated by changes in circulating insulin, which enters the hypothalamic CSF and stimulates reproductive neuroendocrine output by inhibiting NPY expression. The GnRH/LH response to a decreasing plane of nutrition appears to be mediated by changes in leptin signaling via increased leptin receptor expression, which inhibits reproductive neuroendocrine output by inhibiting melanocortin activity ( Miller et al ., 2007 ).

I suggested this to a few of my patients who I suspected were suffering from this specific scenario.  At first, I was unsure if a simple cup of rooibos tea would be strong enough to have any significant impact.  I was pleasantly surprised to find all them had noticeable results within a month.  Every single one of them reported feeling calmer.  Several of them reported an improvement in their sex drive.  One of them had her high blood pressure return to normal within three weeks.  All of them had significantly easier periods with fewer cramps and clots.  One of them had a normal period for the first time in years.  Previously, her periods were coming every three weeks and were accompanied by heavy bleeding.  She was chronically anemic and alway felt worse with progesterone. This same lady ended up needing to reduce her dose of thyroid medication, which had been the same for years.  I’m guessing this is partly because of the effects of cortisol on the thyroid through the adrenal-thyroid axis and maybe partly because progesterone boosts thyroid function.  My acne patients who had symptoms of this scenario all improved by at least 20% and two ladies improved by about 70% after one month.  Acne is multifaceted so it would be unlikely that rooibos tea would act as a magic pill but it definitely seems to help.   I was REALLY encouraged by these results.  The lady who had the high blood pressure had a relapse about two months after.  At first we couldn’t figure out why but then realized that she had bought some rooibos tea that contained licorice, which is known to elevate blood pressure.  When she stopped this her blood pressure returned back to normal within a week.  There are a couple unknowns here.  To reduce overall inflammation, I have all of my patients stop drinking coffee and alcohol and reduce their sugar intake to less than 7 grams per meal.  If someone is still consuming these, I’m not sure if some of these substances might override the beneficial effects of the rooibos and continue to drive the pathway in the wrong direction.  I would LOVE to hear your feedback.

Antioxidants scavenge ROS . Antioxidants are needed to keep ROS concentrations at bay as too much ROS, though a natural byproduct of ATP production, will damage the mitochondria and initiate a damaging, self-perpetuating cycle. The body has a number of anti-oxidants to temper ROS. Many nutrients are included in this category: Vitamins C and E, CoEnzyme Q10 and glutathione are among the most well known. It turns out that estradiol and progesterone are potent anti-oxidants as well. So chemically or surgically eliminating estradiol reduces the body’s ability to detoxify and eliminate damaging ROS, evoking further mitochondrial damage.

Steroidogenesis pathway wikipedia

steroidogenesis pathway wikipedia

Antioxidants scavenge ROS . Antioxidants are needed to keep ROS concentrations at bay as too much ROS, though a natural byproduct of ATP production, will damage the mitochondria and initiate a damaging, self-perpetuating cycle. The body has a number of anti-oxidants to temper ROS. Many nutrients are included in this category: Vitamins C and E, CoEnzyme Q10 and glutathione are among the most well known. It turns out that estradiol and progesterone are potent anti-oxidants as well. So chemically or surgically eliminating estradiol reduces the body’s ability to detoxify and eliminate damaging ROS, evoking further mitochondrial damage.

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