Ann N Y Acad Sci 1990;587:371-5.
Cytokines and osteoporosis. Fujita T, Matsui T, Nakao Y, Shiozawa S,
Imai Y. Conditions associated with immune dysfunction such as aging,
corticosteroid therapy, and rheumatoid arthritis are associated with
osteoporosis, which is also more common in females than in males, like
most of the autoimmune-collagen diseases. Peripheral lymphocyte subsets
CD4/CD8 were higher in patients with senile osteoporosis than in the
age-matched controls, and returned to normal after 1 month of 1 alpha(OH)vitamin
D3 treatment. Plasma interferon reflecting macrophage function decreased
with advance in age and increased in response to 1 alpha(OH)D3 treatment.
As one of the immunoregulators, vitamin D tends to stimulate the macrophage-natural
killer system and suppress the lymphocyte system, stimulating TGF beta
and TNF alpha activity. Senile osteoporosis of low turnover thus appears
to be associated with vitamin D deficiency, low macrophage function,
high CD4 lymphocyte proportion, low IL-1 and high IL-2 activity, low
IFN alpha and high IFN gamma activity, and low TGF beta and TNF alpha
On the whole, you could argue that growth hormone secretagogues too can achieve some of these benefits (for instance enhanced muscular visibility would certainly take place as a direct result of an effective nutrition plan in conjunction with lean muscle gain whilst using secretagogues; an increased nutrient uptake would take place as a direct result of an increased metabolism etc) but at large, anabolic steroids can fulfil these end results with a little more potency, whereas they would appear as “residual” benefits when utilising secretagogues.