This application note describes the extraction of benzodiazepine compounds from whole blood, prior to GC/MS analysis. This protocol also allows the simultaneous extraction of various other drugs of abuse classes: amphetamines, barbiturates, cocaine and opiates.
ISOLUTE® SLE+ columns with 1 mL sample capacity are used to extract whole blood samples following a straightforward sample dilution. No protein precipitation or other pre-treatment is required prior to sample loading. The sample preparation procedure delivers clean extracts, good recoveries and RSD values and LLOQs from 10 ng/mL (analyte dependant).
Tags: 2-OH-Et-Flurazepam , 7-Aminoclonazepam , 7-Aminoflunitrazepam , Alprazolam , Application Notes , Benzodiazepines , Bromazepam , Clinical , Clonazepam , Column , Diazepam , English , Estazolam , Flunitrazepam , Flurazepam , Forensic , GC-MS , Lorazepam , Midazolam , Nitrazepam , Nordiazepam , Oxazepam , Temazepam , Triazolam , Whole blood , α-OH Triazolam , α-OH alprazolam
While whey protein appears to be more potent at stimulating protein synthesis (68% above baseline by whey, 31% by casein) whey protein fails to inhibit protein breakdown while casein can reduce protein oxidation by 31%.  The net result is either similar accumulations in muscle tissue content after ingestion of equal amounts of whey or casein protein,  or better retention with casein over 7 hours if nothing else is ingested;  this is despite 30% greater leucine uptake into muscle cells when measured at 2 hours post ingestion relative to casein .  One study that divided protein synthesis rates into a 60-210 minute period and a 210-360 minute period noted that whey increased protein synthesis significantly more than casein in the first period only, with the opposite result occurring in the latter period and no overall difference over the 5 hours tested, although casein trended towards being more effective.