In the classical era, the association between the denuded glans and criminal impropriety is reflected in the vernacular, for in the plays of Aristophanes we find use of the derisory adjective psolos (ψωλος). 73 The [Page 393] scoliasts suggest that psolos can simply mean "having an erection," 74 a situation that can inadvertently cause the prepuce to evert, exposing the glans, but this definition does not take into account the varied contexts in which the word is used. The psolos male need not necessarily be circumcised either, as in the following slander: "He's come back here with an old man who's filthy, hunchbacked, wretched, wrinkled, bald, toothless, and, by God, I think he's psolos too!" 75 When applied to certain foreigners of ill repute, however, psolos can very well imply that circumcision is the cause of the offender's lewdness. In the Birds , for instance, in the context of an uncharitable speech dealing with the Egyptians and the Phoenicians, a reading of "circumcised" for psolos , when it is used here to denote these peoples, may well be intended. 76 Whether the glans was exposed through preputial slackness, inappropriate erection, or preputial amputation, the affront to good taste was the same. The public exposure of the glans was unsightly and indecent.