Intoxication effects of steroids

Accidental intoxication of humans by mad honey has been well documented by several Classical authors, notably Xenophon , while the deliberate use of such honey as a medicine and intoxicant (even hallucinogen ) is still practiced by the Gurung tribe of Nepal , who have a long tradition of hazardous cliff-climbing to wrest the precious commodity from the nests of Apis dorsata laboriosa , the giant Himalayan honeybee. The honey thus collected by the Gurung owes its inebriating properties to the nectar which the giant bees gather from a deep red-flowered species of Rhododendron , which, in turn, owes its toxicity to the compound grayanotoxin , widespread in the plant family Ericaceae , to which the genus Rhododendron belongs. [39]

Medical treatments for alcohol dependence include three approved oral medications - disulfiram (Antabuse), naltrexone (Depade, Revia) and acamprosate (Campral) - and an injectable long-acting form of naltrexone ( Vivitrol ). Use of these medical treatments may work to help reduce drinking, relapses, and lead to full recovery and abstinence from alcohol. According to one review, naltrexone and acamprosate have strong evidence and are recommended as treatment options for alcohol dependence in conjunction with behavioral therapy. Disulfiram has not been shown to increase abstinence rates or decrease relapse rates or cravings compared with placebo, and it is not recommended for routine use in primary care. 14

The areas of the brain where cannabinoid receptors are most prevalently located are consistent with the behavioral effects produced by cannabinoids. Brain regions in which cannabinoid receptors are very abundant are the basal ganglia , associated with movement control; the cerebellum , associated with body movement coordination; the hippocampus , associated with learning , memory, and stress control; the cerebral cortex , associated with higher cognitive functions; and the nucleus accumbens , regarded as the reward center of the brain. Other regions where cannabinoid receptors are moderately concentrated are the hypothalamus , which regulates homeostatic functions; the amygdala , associated with emotional responses and fears ; the spinal cord , associated with peripheral sensations like pain; the brain stem , associated with sleep , arousal , and motor control; and the nucleus of the solitary tract , associated with visceral sensations like nausea and vomiting . [56]

Intoxication effects of steroids

intoxication effects of steroids


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