Large-volume oil-smuggling operations have not been studied. What is known about them is based mostly on anecdotal information that underlines the involvement of media bosses and wealthy businessmen. In one rare investigation, the prosecutor indicted and charged a criminal group consisting of a media boss and 46 suspects with importing oil from Russia and Belarus—neither of which is a member of the European Union Customs Union (EUCU)—but showing the source as the United Kingdom. The counterfeit documents were used to evade paying taxes on the oil. According to the indictment, the group evaded $ million in taxes on a total of 56 oil transfers. [xviii] In another investigation, the police found that one of the big oil companies in Turkey smuggled oil with counterfeit documents. The company opened a front company in one of the offshore islands and showed this company as a source to buy oil. Then the oil company transferred a vast amount of oil from countries with cheaper prices and used fake documentation to show that the oil was transferred from EUCU states. [xix]
The correlation between DNA methylation and chromatin structure, as it relates to transcriptional activity, is demonstrated by the observation that there are several proteins, that bind to methylated CpGs but not to unmethylated CpGs, whose functions are integrated into transcriptional regulation. There are currently 15 genes in the human genome that encode proteins that bind to methyl-CpG in DNA. These 15 proteins are divided into 3 subfamilies identified by structural similarities. These sub-families are the methyl binding domain (MBD) proteins, the methyl-CpG-binding zinc finger proteins (also called the Kaiso family), and the SRA domain ( S ET and R ING finger domain A ssociated) containing proteins. The SET domain is so-called because it was first identified in three Drosophila proteins called S uppressor of variegation variant 3-9 [Su(var)3-9], E nhancer of zeste, and T rithorax. The RING domain is a zinc-finger-like domain which gets its name from the term R eally I nteresting N ew G ene.