Recommendation 1: NSAIDs should be considered as a treatment of chronic LBP (Strength: Strong). There is evidence demonstrating favorable effectiveness, but also significant side effects that may have meaningful clinical consequences. Recommendation 2: Opioids may be considered in the treatment of chronic LBP but should be avoided if possible (Strength: Weak). There is evidence demonstrating favorable effectiveness compared to placebo, similar effectiveness compared to NSAIDs, and with significant side effects including decreasing effectiveness related to habituation when used long-term. Recommendation 3: Antidepressants should not be routinely used for the treatment of chronic LBP (Strength: Strong). There is evidence that they are not more effective than placebo with respect to pain, functional status, or depression. Based on the hypothesis that chronic LBP is a symptom reflective of a heterogeneous group of disorders, categorization of certain patient specific subgroups may be helpful in guiding future treatment decision making. It is likely that inclusion of subgroup factors in future RCTs will provide information needed to improve the strength and specificity of future clinical recommendations.
Oxidative stress with reactive oxygen species generation is a key weapon in the arsenal of the immune system for fighting invading pathogens and initiating tissue repair. If excessive or unresolved, however, immune-related oxidative stress can initiate further increasing levels of oxidative stress that cause organ damage and dysfunction. Targeting oxidative stress in various diseases therapeutically has proven more problematic than first anticipated given the complexities and perversity of both the underlying disease and the immune response. However, growing evidence suggests that the endocannabinoid system, which includes the CB₁ and CB₂ G-protein-coupled receptors and their endogenous lipid ligands, may be an area that is ripe for therapeutic exploitation. In this context, the related nonpsychotropic cannabinoid cannabidiol, which may interact with the endocannabinoid system but has actions that are distinct, offers promise as a prototype for anti-inflammatory drug development. This review discusses recent studies suggesting that cannabidiol may have utility in treating a number of human diseases and disorders now known to involve activation of the immune system and associated oxidative stress, as a contributor to their etiology and progression. These include rheumatoid arthritis, types 1 and 2 diabetes, atherosclerosis, Alzheimer disease, hypertension, the metabolic syndrome, ischemia-reperfusion injury, depression, and neuropathic pain.
Omega-3 fatty acids have been shown to disrupt inflammation cell signaling pathways by binding to the GPR120 receptor.  This benefit however can be inhibited or even reversed if the ratio of Omega-6 / Omega-3 is too high as Omega-6 serves as a precursor to inflammatory chemicals ( prostaglandin and leukotriene eicosanoids ) in the body.   A high proportion of omega-6 to omega-3 fat in the diet shifts the physiological state in the tissues toward the pathogenesis of many diseases: prothrombotic, proinflammatory and proconstrictive.  Omega-6 competes with Omega-3 for the same rate limiting factor which is required for the health-benefits of Omega-3, directly reducing the action of Omega-3 in addition to pharmacologically counteracting Omega-3 benefits through its own action as a pro-inflammatory agent.