Anti-herpes virus activity of solanum steroidal glycosides

Valaciclovir belongs from a family of molecules first described and patented by Ferraris in 1982 (patents EP0077460 A2, CA1258149A1, DE3273785D1, EP0077460A3, EP0077460B1, US4567182). Valaciclovir is a prodrug, an esterified version of aciclovir that has greater oral bioavailability (about 55%) than aciclovir (10–20%). It is converted by esterases to the active drug aciclovir , as well as the amino acid valine , via hepatic first-pass metabolism . Aciclovir is selectively converted into a monophosphate form by viral thymidine kinase , which is far more effective (3000 times) in phosphorylation of aciclovir than cellular thymidine kinase. Subsequently, the monophosphate form is further phosphorylated into the active triphosphate form, aciclo-GTP, by cellular kinases . Aciclo-GTP is a very potent inhibitor of viral DNA polymerase ; it has approximately 100 times higher affinity to viral than cellular polymerase. Its monophosphate form also incorporates into the viral DNA, resulting in chain termination . It has also been shown that the viral enzymes cannot remove aciclo- GMP from the chain, which results in inhibition of further activity of DNA polymerase. Aciclo-GTP is fairly rapidly metabolised within the cell, possibly by cellular phosphatases . [9]

A sulfated polysaccharide named calcium spirulan (Ca-SP) has been isolated from a sea alga, Spirulina platensis, as an antiviral component. The anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and anti-herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) activities of Ca-SP were compared with those of dextran sulfate (DS) as a representative sulfated polysaccharide. Anti-HIV-1 activities of these agents were measured by three different assays: viability of acutely infected CD4-positive cells, or a cytopathology assay; determination of HIV-1 p24 antigen released into culture supernatants; and inhibition of HIV-induced syncytium formation. Anti-HSV-1 activity was assessed by plaque yield reduction. In addition, their effects on the blood coagulation processes and stability in the blood were evaluated. These data indicate that Ca-SP is a potent antiviral agent against both HIV-1 and HSV-1. Furthermore, Ca-SP is quite promising as an anti-HIV agent because even at low concentrations of Ca-SP an enhancement of virus-induced syncytium formation was not observed, as was observed in DS-treated cultures, Ca-SP had very low anticoagulant activity, and showed a much longer half-life in the blood of mice when compared with that of DS. Thus, Ca-SP can be a candidate agent for an anti-HIV therapeutic drug that might overcome the disadvantages observed in many sulfated polysaccharides. When the role of chelation of calcium ion with sulfate groups was examined by removing calcium or its replacement by sodium, the presence of calcium ion in the molecule was shown to be essential for the dose-dependent inhibition of cytopathic effect and syncytium formation induced by HIV-1.

Like antibiotics for bacteria, antiviral drugs are a class of antimicrobials used specifically for treating viral infections. They are relatively harmless to host because they inhibit the development of pathogens instead of destroying them. Most of the antiviral agents need to be activated by viral and cellular enzymes before exerting antiviral effect. Hence, activity of enzymes and concentration of substrates will influence the efficacy of these drugs.
In majority of acute infections, viral replication is already at its peak when symptoms appear. To be effective, antiviral therapy has to be started in the incubation period, has to be prophylactic.

Anti-herpes virus activity of solanum steroidal glycosides

anti-herpes virus activity of solanum steroidal glycosides

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anti-herpes virus activity of solanum steroidal glycosidesanti-herpes virus activity of solanum steroidal glycosidesanti-herpes virus activity of solanum steroidal glycosidesanti-herpes virus activity of solanum steroidal glycosidesanti-herpes virus activity of solanum steroidal glycosides